November 5, 2018
PENETRON Technology Provides Durability for Dagestan Mall
Opened in November 2018 in time for the Christmas season, the new Riviera Mall, on the shores of the Caspian Sea in Makhachkala (in Dagestan Province, Russia), specified PENETRON ADMIX for the concrete basement structures. The admixture’s crystalline technology provides lifetime resistance to the penetration of chloride ions into the concrete – a key durability factor.
Located on the “Caspian Riviera” waterfront of Makhachkala, the new shopping mall is housed in an eye-catching five-floor structure that resembles the prow of a ship. With a 6,300 m2 (69,300 square feet) footprint, the upper floors are sheathed in glass. In addition to a selection of retail stores, the Riviera Mall also features a family entertainment center.
“Because the construction site was directly adjacent to the saltwater of the Caspian Sea, finding a reliable waterproofing solution was a priority for the Riviera Mall project,” says Igor Chernogolov, President of Penetron Russia. “However, the project owners initially preferred a membrane solution. They were wary about the effectiveness of an integral waterproofing solution.”
Submitting to a Durability Test
While a bituminous membrane waterproofs a concrete structure, much like a dishwasher’s glove keeps your hands dry, the rubberized covering is also expensive to install and can tear, necessitating costly repairs. An integral waterproofing system, such as PENETRON ADMIX, works from the inside of the concrete. When PENETRON ADMIX is mixed into the concrete during batching, the active ingredients result in a catalytic reaction (with moisture in fresh concrete and by-products of cement hydration) to generate a non-soluble crystalline formation throughout the pores and capillary tracts of the concrete. These crystals permanently seal microcracks, pores and capillaries against the penetration of water or liquids from any direction – and protects concrete from deterioration, even under constant contact with seawater from the Caspian Sea.
“The local Penetron team demonstrated the effectiveness and superior durability of an integral crystalline solution to the project owners and their engineers,” recalls Igor Chernogolov. “After a careful review of the evidence, they dropped the membrane specification and approved the integral solution.”
The basement, located 1.5 m (5-feet) below the water table, was treated with PENETRON ADMIX during batching. PENEBAR SW waterstop was used to seal the cold joints. After crystalline treatment was complete, the Penetron technical experts told the contractor to simply leave the below-ground structures fully exposed to the seawater for two weeks to test the performance of PENETRON ADMIX.
“When the time passed, we weren’t surprised to see there were no leaks anywhere in the structure,” recalls Igor Chernogolov. “The project owners admitted we had surpassed their expectations!”
Significant Reduction in Chloride Penetration
The improved impermeability of the concrete in the foundation substantially reduces chloride ion penetration of the concrete, which also prevents corrosion of the underlying steel reinforcement. By adding PENETRON ADMIX to the mix, the contractor eliminated the need to modify the concrete mix with silica fume, corrosion inhibitors and air-entrainment admixtures.
“Chloride-induced corrosion of steel, which is common in settings like the Makhachkala waterfront, is one of the most important aspects of concrete durability,” explains Igor Chernogolov. “That’s why concrete dosed with PENETRON ADMIX ensures a substantial and permanent reduction in chloride permeability in concrete – not to mention the time and cost savings when compared to a membrane solution.”